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Koordinator v0.5: Now With Node Resource Topology And More

· 8 min read

In addition to the usual updates to supporting utilities, Koordinator v0.5 adds a couple of new useful features we think you'll like.

Install or Upgrade to Koordinator v0.5.0

Install with helms

Koordinator can be simply installed by helm v3.5+, which is a simple command-line tool, and you can get it from here.

# Firstly add koordinator charts repository if you haven't do this.
$ helm repo add koordinator-sh

# [Optional]
$ helm repo update

# Install the latest version.
$ helm install koordinator koordinator-sh/koordinator --version 0.5.0

Upgrade with helm

# Firstly add koordinator charts repository if you haven't do this.
$ helm repo add koordinator-sh

# [Optional]
$ helm repo update

# Upgrade the latest version.
$ helm upgrade koordinator koordinator-sh/koordinator --version 0.5.0 [--force]

For more details, please refer to the installation manual.

Fine-grained CPU Orchestration

In this version, we introduced a fine-grained CPU orchestration. Pods in the Kubernetes cluster may interfere with others' running when they share the same physical resources and both demand many resources. The sharing of CPU resources is almost inevitable. e.g. SMT threads (i.e. logical processors) share execution units of the same core, and cores in the same chip share one last-level cache. The resource contention can slow down the running of these CPU-sensitive workloads, resulting in high response latency (RT).

To improve the performance of CPU-sensitive workloads, koord-scheduler provides a mechanism of fine-grained CPU orchestration. It enhances the CPU management of Kubernetes and supports detailed NUMA-locality and CPU exclusions.

Please check out our user manual for a detailed introduction and tutorial.

Resource Reservation

Pods are fundamental units for allocating node resources in Kubernetes, which bind resource requirements with business logic. The scheduler is not able to reserve node resources for specific pods or workloads. We may try using a fake pod to prepare resources by the preemption mechanism. However, fake pods can be preempted by any scheduled pods with higher priorities, which make resources get scrambled unexpectedly.

In Koordinator, a resource reservation mechanism is proposed to enhance scheduling and especially benefits scenarios below:

  1. Preemption: Existing preemption does not guarantee that only preempting pods can allocate preempted resources. With a reservation, the scheduler should be able to "lock" resources preventing from allocation of other pods with the same or higher priority.
  2. De-scheduling: For the descheduler, it is better to ensure sufficient resources with the reservation before pods get rescheduled. Otherwise, rescheduled pods may not be runnable anymore and make the belonging application disrupted.
  3. Horizontal scaling: Using reservation to achieve more deterministic horizontal scaling. e.g. Submit a reservation and make sure it is available before scaling up replicas.
  4. Resource Pre-allocation: Sometimes we want to pre-allocate node resources for future resource demands even if the resources are not currently allocatable. Reservation can help with this and it should make no physical cost.

This feature is still under development. We've finalized the API, feel free to check it out.

type Reservation struct {
metav1.TypeMeta `json:",inline"`
// A Reservation object is non-namespaced.
// It can reserve resources for pods of any namespace. Any affinity/anti-affinity of reservation scheduling can be
// specified in the pod template.
metav1.ObjectMeta `json:"metadata,omitempty"`
Spec ReservationSpec `json:"spec,omitempty"`
Status ReservationStatus `json:"status,omitempty"`

type ReservationSpec struct {
// Template defines the scheduling requirements (resources, affinities, images, ...) processed by the scheduler just
// like a normal pod.
// If the `template.spec.nodeName` is specified, the scheduler will not choose another node but reserve resources on
// the specified node.
Template *corev1.PodTemplateSpec `json:"template,omitempty"`
// Specify the owners who can allocate the reserved resources.
// Multiple owner selectors and ANDed.
Owners []ReservationOwner `json:"owners,omitempty"`
// By default, the resources requirements of reservation (specified in `template.spec`) is filtered by whether the
// node has sufficient free resources (i.e. ReservationRequest < NodeFree).
// When `preAllocation` is set, the scheduler will skip this validation and allow overcommitment. The scheduled
// reservation would be waiting to be available until free resources are sufficient.
PreAllocation bool `json:"preAllocation,omitempty"`
// Time-to-Live period for the reservation.
// `expires` and `ttl` are mutually exclusive. If both `ttl` and `expires` are not specified, a very
// long TTL will be picked as default.
TTL *metav1.Duration `json:"ttl,omitempty"`
// Expired timestamp when the reservation expires.
// `expires` and `ttl` are mutually exclusive. Defaults to being set dynamically at runtime based on the `ttl`.
Expires *metav1.Time `json:"expires,omitempty"`

type ReservationStatus struct {
// The `phase` indicates whether is reservation is waiting for process (`Pending`), available to allocate
// (`Available`) or expired to get cleanup (Expired).
Phase ReservationPhase `json:"phase,omitempty"`
// The `conditions` indicate the messages of reason why the reservation is still pending.
Conditions []ReservationCondition `json:"conditions,omitempty"`
// Current resource owners which allocated the reservation resources.
CurrentOwners []corev1.ObjectReference `json:"currentOwners,omitempty"`

type ReservationOwner struct {
// Multiple field selectors are ORed.
Object *corev1.ObjectReference `json:"object,omitempty"`
Controller *ReservationControllerReference `json:"controller,omitempty"`
LabelSelector *metav1.LabelSelector `json:"labelSelector,omitempty"`

type ReservationControllerReference struct {
// Extend with a `namespace` field for reference different namespaces.
metav1.OwnerReference `json:",inline"`
Namespace string `json:"namespace,omitempty"`

type ReservationPhase string

const (
// ReservationPending indicates the Reservation has not been processed by the scheduler or is unschedulable for
// some reasons (e.g. the resource requirements cannot get satisfied).
ReservationPending ReservationPhase = "Pending"
// ReservationAvailable indicates the Reservation is both scheduled and available for allocation.
ReservationAvailable ReservationPhase = "Available"
// ReservationWaiting indicates the Reservation is scheduled, but the resources to reserve are not ready for
// allocation (e.g. in pre-allocation for running pods).
ReservationWaiting ReservationPhase = "Waiting"
// ReservationExpired indicates the Reservation is expired, which the object is not available to allocate and will
// get cleaned in the future.
ReservationExpired ReservationPhase = "Expired"

type ReservationCondition struct {
LastProbeTime metav1.Time `json:"lastProbeTime"`
LastTransitionTime metav1.Time `json:"lastTransitionTime"`
Reason string `json:"reason"`
Message string `json:"message"`

QoS Manager

Currently, plugins from resmanager in Koordlet are mixed together, they should be classified into two categories: static and dynamic. Static plugins will be called and run only once when a container created, updated, started or stopped. However, for dynamic plugins, they may be called and run at any time according the real-time runtime states of node, such as CPU suppress, CPU burst, etc. This proposal only focuses on refactoring dynamic plugins. Take a look at current plugin implementation, there are many function calls to resmanager's methods directly, such as collecting node/pod/container metrics, fetching metadata of node/pod/container, fetching configurations(NodeSLO, etc.). In the feature, we may need a flexible and powerful framework with scalability for special external plugins.

The below is directory tree of qos-manager inside koordlet, all existing dynamic plugins(as built-in plugins) will be moved into sub-directory plugins.

- manager.go
- context.go // plugin context
- /plugins/ // built-in plugins
- /cpubrust/
- /cpusuppress/
- /cpuevict/
- /memoryevict/

We only have the proposal in this version. Stay tuned, further implementation is coming soon!

Multiple Running Hook Modes

Runtime Hooks includes a set of plugins which are responsible for the injections of resource isolation parameters by pod attribute. When Koord Runtime Proxy running as a CRI Proxy, Runtime Hooks acts as the backend server. The mechanism of CRI Proxy can ensure the consistency of resource parameters during pod lifecycle. However, Koord Runtime Proxy can only hijack CRI requests from kubelet for pods, the consistency of resource parameters in QoS class directory cannot be guaranteed. Besides, modification of pod parameters from third-party(e.g. manually) will also break the correctness of hook plugins.

Therefore, a standalone running mode with reconciler for Runtime Hooks is necessary. Under Standalone running mode, resource isolation parameters will be injected asynchronously, keeping eventual consistency of the injected parameters for pod and QoS class even without Runtime Hook Manager.

Some minor works

  1. We fix the backward compatibility issues reported by our users in here. If you've ever encountered similar problem, please upgrade to the latest version.
  2. Two more interfaces were added into runtime-proxy. One is PreCreateContainerHook, which could set container resources setting before creating, and the other is PostStopSandboxHook, which could do the resource setting garbage collecting before pods deleted.
  3. cpuacct.usage is more precise than cpuacct.stat, and cpuacct.stat is in USER_HZ unit, while cpuacct.usage is nanoseconds. After thorough discussion, we were on the same page that we replace cpuacct.stat with cpuacct.usage in koordlet.
  4. Koordlet needs to keep fetching data from kubelet. Before this version, we only support accessing kubelet via read-only port over HTTP. Due to security concern, we've enabled HTTPS access in this version. For more details, please refer to this PR.

What’s coming next in Koordinator

Don't forget that Koordinator is developed in the open. You can check out our Github milestone to know more about what is happening and what we have planned. For more details, please refer to our milestone. Hope it helps!